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As a result of what people call “ocean dumping” and anthropogenic activities, the growing problem of marine debris has been identified as a threat to wildlife on the international level. More than 220 million tons of plastic are produced every year in the world and to the present day, estimates calculated that five trillions small pieces of this product are floating in our oceans.

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In an article on sciencing, John Newton (2017) explains that the space needed to create a landfill site destroys the homes of many species, as well as pollutes the water in the ground and the quality of the soil around the site. Not to mention the degradation of the health of those who lives near those sites. Plus, he explains how it generates methane gas which is a known greenhouse gas that does more damage to the atmosphere than carbon dioxide. In other words, it can exponentially speed up climate change.

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It is known by a lot of people that Brazil was a very bad example of deforestation in the 1990s. In this period, an area the size of Belgium was destroyed in the Amazonian rainforest every year. Fortunately, Brazil has found ways to break the vicious circle in which it was and its deforestation fell by 70%, going from a 19500 km2 per year in 2005 to 5800km2 in 2008. If it had continued at this pace, a surplus of 3.2 billion tone of CO2 would have been released. This is why Brazil play an important role in climate change.

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Over the last three decades, coral biodiversity and cover have decreased significantly and are in danger. We might not think that coral reefs are that important, but in fact; they contribute to many things such as sustaining fisheries, protecting coast and tourism. Every year, the goods and services provided by coral ecosystems contribute to approximately 30 billion US dollars. This is why the increasing trend of coral bleaching and mortality needs more attention. It was found that these two phenomenon are directly related to changes in temperature and human activities.

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Indeed, the increasing mass of electronic waste is becoming the fastest-growing waste stream on the planet. This is due to the very rapid flow of new products that are put on the market everyday, which encourages consumers to always buy new devices and get rid of their old ones. In 2014, the Global quantity of E-waste generated was 41.8 million tonnes and may rise up to 65.4 millions in the current year. The number of chemical elements that can be found in E-waste goes up to about sixty and may contain lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, etc.

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Scientists are sending out a plea for the oceans. The global climate change that humans have been contributing to has started the threat of mass extinction in the oceans. Heating of the oceans causes the acidity to rise which in turn forces ocean wildlife to either migrate to new areas or to try to adapt to the change in environment. 40% of coral reefs have died due to human action and climate change. Massive bottom trawlers scrape away the seabed, tearing apart coral reefs and upturning tons of debris. Today, over 460000 m2 is used for oil mining in the deep ocean.

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